We all know that the
actual meaning, message or news in a particular language which are
transferred into other language is called translation. Person who is
translating is the translator and this translator necessarily should
have command over the source language as well as the target language.
But word of mouth that is translated with the same word of mouth is
called interpretation which is occupying a special place in our society
and the world in general. Person who is interpreting is interpreter.
There are innumerable languages in whole of the world. It is said that
one Bible has been translated into nearly 2000 languages by which it is
clear that there are more than 2000 languages in the world. Since it is
not possible for a person to learn all languages translation is helping
learn about the great writings, great knowledge, cultural treasure that
are present in a particular source language are reaching him with this
only medium that is translation. People belonging to different
religions, languages in the world maintaining the integrity and
brotherhood is mainly on account of this great medium. For example when
we look at our Vedas which are said to be the base containing a vast
knowledge and invaluable culture in it. But Vedas are written in
Sanskrit language which foreigners can’t understand and learning is also
difficult and for that aspect learning of any language is equally
difficult. There fore every one is able to relish the knowledge and the
cultural glow which are contained in Vedas easily only because of this
great medium i.e., translation. There are two kinds of translators
anywhere and they are:
1) Translators for money
2) Translators liking the information in source language who are other
wise called professional translators.
Let us not mistake that translators for the sake of money invariably
have mistakes in their work. It is their source of income and therefore
they too will be competently doing their job. In telugu literature there
are many professional translators and to name a few of them like
Gudipati Venkatachalam who translated Tagore’s poetry and Duvvuri
Ramireddy who translated Omer Quayyam’s poetries and others like Srisri,
Kodavatiganti Kutumbarao, Surampudi Sitharam etc., were professional
translators. All of whom though took remuneration in exchange of
translation still they loved the information within and then they
translated. Some of the terms which are straight away translated in the
accent is called transliteration. For example words like book, paper,
pen, can also be transliterated in any language.
In the medium of translation many difficulties arise. Most importantly
like 1)Language Difficulty. 2) Cultural Difficulty. As per an important
literary person by name Theodore Savory the different principles to be
adopted while translating, which he had interpreted from different
people’s findings are as follows:-
1). Some said the style of translation should reflect the source
language which others disputed and said as the style of the translators
own method should reflect in the translation.
2). While some said translation should not be looked as straight
translation instead look like straight writing but others said “It
should be like a translation.”
3). Some advised that source language words should be translated as it
is but others were of the opinion that meaning is important and not the
There are other language difficulties in translation while translating
from English to any Indian language. Example “the man who is sincere is
regarded” if it is translated into Hindi like “ Wah admi jo imandar hai,
wahi prasamsa vala “ is wrong. But the right way is “ “Imandar admi ko
mana jatha hai”. When we take other example like “He kicked the bucket”
which translation should be simply said as “He died”. But some people in
Hindi put it as “ Aadmi Balti ko laath maar diya” where the traditions
and culture should be followed strictly as the western and Indian
cultures are different.
Some principles of translation should always be followed by the source
language writer while translating. They are:
1). The topic in the source language should thoroughly be read and the
source language writer’s intension should be properly understood.
2). Phrases, quotations in the source language should be analyzed
thoroughly before translating into any local language.
3). The central meaning in the source language script necessarily taken
into view before translating.
4). While translating target language sentence formation and writing
style are to be given utmost priority.
5). In translation clarity is very important. For example “ He is too
old. Age is telling on him”, should be translated as “wah aadmi ka umar
bahuth hai. Umar ka prabhav vun per dikh raha hai” which is correct and
it should not be put in the following way “wah aadmi ka umar bahuth hai,
Wah aadmi ke upar umar bol raha hai”.
6). Information that is not present in the source language should not be
included into translated version.
7). In the same way the meaning in the source language and the
information there in should not be deleted or replaced.
8). Translation should carry clear meaning within it and this should be
given top priority which means that the translator should never think
that whatever that was possible by me is done and the rest is left to
Precautions to be taken while translating are :
1). Word to word should not be translated.
2). Information should be thoroughly read and meaning only should be
3). Unknown things should not be tried to be included in translation .
4). If the text is small and if it is necessary that the delivery of
translation needs to be expanded in the local language, it has to be
5). Translation should not be mechanically done instead should be
garnished with colour, taste, and fragrance.
Finally, translation is a specialized skill. No body acquires it by
birth. For this context no skill or education are acquired by birth.
Animals know swimming by birth but man acquires it only by learning.
With a regular practice alone translation or any education can be learnt
to some extent. Therefore it is necessary that while reading English
books or papers or any other regional language a translator should
invariably keep in mind about this activity. Good translation if read
must be noted in a book and overall more and more reading should also be
put into a habit.